The term “Scheduled Tribes” first appeared in the Constitution of India. Article 366 (25) defines Scheduled Tribes as “such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this Constitution". Article 342 prescribes the procedure to be followed in the matter of specification of Scheduled Tribes.
Empowered by Clause (1) of Article 342, the President may, with respect to any State or Union Territory, and where it is a State, after consultation with the Governor thereof, notify tribes or tribal communities or parts of these as Scheduled Tribes. This confers on the tribe or part of it a Constitutional status invoking the safeguards provided for in the Constitution, to these communities in their respective States/UTs.
Clause (2) of the Article empowers the Parliament to pass a law to include in or exclude form the list of Scheduled Tribes, any tribe or tribal community or parts of these.
Thus, the first specification of Scheduled Tribes in relation to a particular State/ Union Territory is by a notified order of the President, after consultation with the State Governments concerned. These orders can be modified subsequently only through an Act of Parliament. The above article also provides for listing of Scheduled Tribes State/Union Territory wise and not on an all India basis.
The criteria followed for specification of a community as a Scheduled Tribe are.
This criteria is not spelt out in the Constitution but has become well established. It takes into account the definitions in the 1931 Census, the reports of the first Backward Classes Commission (Kalelkar), 1955, the Advisory Committee on Revision of SC/ST lists (Lokur Committee),1965 and the Joint Committee of Parliament on the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Bill, 1967 (Chanda Committee),1969.
In exercise of the powers conferred by Clause (1) of Article 342 of the Constitution of India, the President, after Consultation with the State Governments concerned, had promulgated so far 9 Orders specifying the Scheduled Tribes in relation to the States and Union Territories. Out of these, eight are in operation at present in their original or amended form. One Order, namely the constitution (Goa, Daman & Diu) Scheduled Tribes order 1968 has become defunct on account of the reorganization of Goa, Daman & Diu in 1987. Under the Goa, Daman & Diu Reorganization Act in 1987 (18 of 1987) the list of scheduled Tribes of Goa has been transferred to part XIX of the Schedule to the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950 and that of Daman & Diu, to part II of the Scheduled to the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) (Union Territories) Order, 1951. The list of scheduled tribes of Andhra -Pradesh is available at Table – 1.
The Scheduled Tribes live in contiguous areas unlike other communities. It is, therefore, much simpler to have area approach for development activities and also regulatory provisions to protect their interests.
In order to protect the interests of the Scheduled Tribes with regard to land alienation and other social factors, provisions of “Fifth Schedule” and “Sixth Schedule” have been enshrined in the Constitution.
The Fifth Schedule under Article 244 (1) of the Constitution defines “Scheduled Areas” as such areas as the President may by Order declare to be Scheduled Areas after consultation with the Governor of that State.
The Sixth Schedule under article 244 (2) of the Constitution relates to those areas in the north east, which are declared as “tribal areas”, and provides for a District or Regional Autonomous Councils for such areas. These councils have wide ranging legislative, judicial and executive powers.
The specification of “Scheduled Areas” in relation to a state is by a notified Order of the President, after consultation with State Government concerned. The same applies for altering, increasing, decreasing, incorporating new areas, or rescinding any Orders relating to “Scheduled Areas”.
The following Orders are in operation at present in their original or amended form:
|Sl. No.||Name of Order||Date of Notification||Name of the State(s) for which applicable|
|1||The Scheduled Areas [Part A States Order, 1950 [C.O.9]||26.01.1950||Andhra Pradesh|
|2||The Scheduled Areas [Part B states] Order, 1975 [C.O.26]||07.12.1950||Andhra Pradesh|
The lisL List of Scheduled Area is at table no. 17
To give a further thrust to the welfare and development of the Scheduled Tribes, a Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes Commission has been set up vide order dated 18th July 2002 under the Chairmanship of Shri Dileep Singh Bhuria, Ex. MP with ten other members. The last such Commission was set up in 1960. The Commission shall examine the development strategies followed so far for the welfare and development of the Scheduled Tribes, and suggest an outline of a viable comprehensive tribal policy.
|Table 1||LIST OF SCHEDULED TRIBES OF ANDHRA PRADESH THE SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES ORDERS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2002|
|Table 2||District Wise Population of Scheduled Tribes of A.P. 2011 census|
|Table 3||DISTRICT–WISE RURAL, URBAN SCHEDULED TRIBE POPULATION AND THEIR PERCENTAGE - 2011 CENSUS|
|Table 4||Tribe-wise and Sex-wise population and their Percentages toTotal Population in AndhraPradesh - 2011 Census|
|Table 5||DISTRICT–WISE SEX-WISE RURAL & URBAN-WISE SCHEDULED TRIBES POPULATION - 2011 CENSUS|
|Table 5.1||District-wise TRIBE-WISE AND SEX-WISE RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION OF SCHEDULED TRIBES OF A.P 2011 CENSUS|
|Table 6||Tribe-wise and District-wise population of Scheduled Tribes of A.P 2011 Census|
|Table 7||DECADAL GROWTH RATE OF SCHEDULED TRIBES AND SEX WISE PERCENTAGES TO GENDER WISE GENERAL POPULATION OF ANDHRA PRADESH FROM 1961 CENSUS TO 2011 CENSUS|
|Table 8||GENDER-WISE RURAL AND URBAN DECADAL GROWTH PERCENTAGES OF SCHEDULED TRIBES IN ANDHRA PRADESH BY RESIDENCE FROM 1961 CENSUS TO 2011 CENSUS|
|Table 9||Scheduled Areas in Andhra Pradesh|
|Table 10||ITDA / District wise No. of Scheduled and Non-Scheduled Villages and Total Population and ST Population in TSP covered Sch. Area & Non Sch. Area|
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